THE STRATEGIC RELEVANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN: LOCAL INSTABILITIES AND INTERNATIONAL THREATS
The Mediterranean is usually observed as a gateway to Europe, mainly in terms of migratory processes. Over the last few years, the progressive shift of interest to Asia by the United States has led to new opportunities for competing regional players, which affect the local security framework. In this new scenario, the Mediterranean takes on relevance no longer only as a gateway to Europe, but as a crucial strategic area for the penetration of the African continent. The latter has long been known as the incubator of the new jihadist threat, which is finding new life and increasingly assuming the characteristics of a hybrid threat. In such a crisis scenario, the security of the Mediterranean is no longer limited to the coastal countries of North Africa but inevitably includes the Sahel area. Here, for years now, the progressive formation of a united front of instability has been observed, crossing Africa from the east to the west coast (here called the "Black Belt Road"), through the bridging of different crises. Considering the European and Italian military presence through operations Barkhane and Takuba, the security of the Mediterranean directly affects the future scenarios of Western military involvement in the African continent.
Alcaro, R. (2014). The Libya-Mali Axis: Spreading Instability across the Sahel and the Horn of Africa. In N. Pirozzi, R. Alcaro (ed.). Transatlantic Security from the Sahel to the Horn of Africa. Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) Research Papers.
Aning, K, Amedzrator, L. (2014). Security in the Sahel: Linking the Atlantic to the Mediterranean. In N. Pirozzi, R. Alcaro (ed.). Transatlantic Security from the Sahel to the Horn of Africa. Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) Research Papers.
Baldaro, E. (2021). Rashomon in the Sahel: Conflict dynamics of security regionalism. Security Dialogue, 52(3). 266-283
Bauer, P. (2013). European–Mediterranean Security and the Arab Spring: Changes and Challenges. Democracy and Security, 9(1-2). 1-18.
Benabdallah, L. (2021). China’s Soft-Power Advantage in Africa. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/africa/2021-12-23/chinas-soft-power-advantage-africa
Biermann, R., Koops J. A., (eds.) 2017. Palgrave Handbook of Inter-Organizational Relations in World Politics. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Biscop, S. (2003). Euro-Mediterranean Security, A Search for Partnership. London: Routledge.
Biscop, S. (2011). Mayhem in the Mediterranean: Three Strategic Lessons for Europe. Egmont Institute.
Charbonneau, B. (2017). De Serval à Barkhane: les problèmes de la guerre contre le terrorisme au Sahel. Les Temps Modernes, 2(693-694). 322-340.
Cristiani, D. (2020). Framing Russia's Mediterranean Return: Stages, Roots and Logics. Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) Commentaries.
D’Amato, S. (2021). Patchwork of Counterterrorism: Analyzing European Types of Cooperation in Sahel. International Studies Review, 23. 1518–1540.
Eylemer, S. Şemşit, S. (2007). Migration-Security Nexus in The Euro-Mediterranean Relations. Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs, 12(3). 49-70.
Fenech, D. (2007). The relevance of European security structures to the Mediterranean (and vice versa). Mediterranean Politics, 2(1). 149-176.
Gebhard, C., Smith S.J., (2015). The two faces of EU–NATO cooperation: Counter-piracy operations off the Somali coast. Cooperation and Conflict, 50(1). 107–127.
Hübschle, A. (2011). From Theory to Practice: Exploring the Organised Crime-Terror Nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa. Perspectives on Terrorism, 5(3/4), 81–95.
Jisi, W., Ran, H. (2019). From cooperative partnership to strategic competition: a review of China–U.S. relations 2009–2019. China Int Strategy Rev., 1. 1–10.
Kasapoglu, C. (2019). Why and How NATO Should Adapt to a New Mediterranean Security Environment. German Institute for International and Security Affairs. SWP Comment, 15.
Langan, M. (2017). Virtuous power Turkey in sub-Saharan Africa: the ‘Neo-Ottoman’ challenge to the European Union. Third World Quarterly, 38(6). 1399-1414.
Larémont, R. R. (2011) Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb: Terrorism and Counterterrorism in the Sahel, African Security, 4(4), 242-268.
Lesser, I. (2019). Emerging security challenges in NATO’s southern neighbourhood. Real Instituto Elcano.
Mallinson W., Kanevskiy P. & Petasis A. (2020). Then Is Now, but the Colours are New: Greece, Cyprus and the Evolving Power Game between the West, Russia and Turkey in the Eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 22(3). 306-332.
Pirozzi, N. (2014). EU Security Policies in the Sahel and the Horn of Africa after the Arab Uprisings: What Prospects for Transatlantic Cooperation?. In N. Pirozzi, R. Alcaro (ed.). Transatlantic Security from the Sahel to the Horn of Africa. Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) Research Papers.
Profazio, U. (2016). Background Paper. In NATO Defense College Foundation (ed.). Deep Maghreb: (In)Security and Stability North Africa and its Sahel Dimension. NDC Foundation.
Raineri, L., Rossi, A. (2017). The Security-Migration-Development Nexus in the Sahel: A Reality Check. Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI).
Riddervold, M. (2014). New threats – different response: EU and NATO and Somali piracy. European Security, 23(4). 546-564
Silove, N. (2016). The Pivot before the Pivot: U.S. Strategy to Preserve the Power Balance in Asia. International Security, 40(4). 45–88.
Simón, L. (2012). CSDP, Strategy and Crisis Management: Out of Area or Out of Business?. The International Spectator, 47(3). 100-115.
Van Engeland, A. (2017). Statehood, Proto States and International Law: New Challenges, Looking at the Case of Isis. In The International Legal Order: Current Needs and Possible Responses. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill
Venturi, B. (2017). The EU and the Sahel: A Laboratory of Experimentation for the Security–Migration–Development Nexus. IAI Working Papers, 17(38).
Warner, J., O'Farrell, R., Nsaibia, H., & Cummings, R. (2020). Outlasting the Caliphate: The Evolution of the Islamic State Threat in Africa. CTC Sentinel, 13(11). 18-33.
© 2020 Security Science Journal. All rights reserved